Windows 10 host resolution (DNS) issues…

Windows 10 (at the time of this writing) apparently suffers from a host resolution bug inside of the “DNS Client” service.
The bug results in host resolution failure. (DNS lookup failures)
This can be addressed (sometimes) by flushing the DNS resolver cache with the CLI command:
ipconfig /flushdns
Or more permanently by stopping and disabling the “DNS Client” service.